Types Of Casting

Typing your keyword including Cast Iron 60" x 30" Clawfoot Soaking Bathtub Cast Iron 60" x 30" Clawfoot Soaking Bathtub Reviews : If you're looking for Cast Iron 60" x 30" Clawfoot Soaking Bathtub. The problem started to occur when invoking the script from Azure Automation. Forging and casting are two very different manufacturing methods. The rib cable cast-on, also called the alternate cable cast-on, is a variant of the cable cast-on method. Radiographic Testing (RT or X-ray or Gamma ray) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method that examines the volume of a specimen. The Metal Casting or just Casting process may be divided into two groups: Hot Forming Process Examples are Centrifugal casting, Extrusion, Forging, Full mold casting, Investment casting, Permanent or Gravity Die casting, Plaster mold casting, Sand Casting, Shell Mold casting. Hello Everyone Welcome To AIM AMIE In this Video We have Seen the Different Types of casting Process. MANUFACTURING  Manufacturing is the production of goods for use or sale using labor 3. Casting is often necessary when a function returns a data of type in different form then we need to perform an operation. What is the difference between unicast, anycast, broadcast and multicast traffic? What situations are they generally used in and why (e. This site uses cookies for analytics, personalized content and ads. of castings to be made, metal being cast, process being used, size and shape, dimensional precision required • Multiple - Use Patterns • Wood - Cheap, easily machined but prone to warping, swelling (moisture), unstable, wears. B = cast(A,'like',p) converts A to the same data type and sparsity as the variable p. Preserve the history of type founding; share the story of your type casting career. In this article, we also learn about the difference between type casting and type conversions. Type casting are of two types they are. Please make sure that the database is in a consistent state by running DBCC CheckDB. Cast iron. If you seeking special discount you need to searching when special time come or holidays. SAS/ACCESS limits data expansion for CAST= to 20% to trade rapid data conversion by Teradata for extra data transmission. 0 generics List convert cast Comments (1) a-foton » Casting/converting generic List of a certain type into a List of another type in C# says:. But it was not until around 700 BCE that the first production of cast iron was developed in China. Inspired by the life of Cosmopolitan editor Joanna Coles. The oldest lost-wax cast sculpture was found in the Cave of Treasure in Israel, and has been dated back to c. Unicast - This type of information transfer is useful when there is a participation of single sender and single recipient. The maximum piece size, weight and location. 10 Aluminium zinc alloy 2. CeramTec offers a wide range of material types with different property profiles that can be adjusted via a targeted matrix design. In the performing arts industry such as theatre, film, or television, a casting (or casting call) is a pre-production process for selecting a certain type of actor, dancer, singer, or extra for a particular role or part in a script, screenplay, or teleplay. New data type should be mentioned before the variable name or value in brackets which to be typecast. Casting of sand is the simplest and most versatile of all casting methods used to produce castings. Damage types. The procedure of making both types of RCC lintel is almost same. As a matter of fact, they are not independent methods of cost finding such as job or process costing but are basically costing techniques which can be used as an. Instances of types that represent COM components. But the work. Jump to: navigation, search. JArray' to type 'System. when i turn on my computer after turn on a message is appear in display this message is ''unable to cast the object of type of the 'system boolean' to type system string This thread is locked. Example : int x = 10; byte y = (byte)x; In Java, type casting is classified into two types, Widening Casting(Implicit) Narrowing Casting(Explicitly done). 1) Primitive Casting : When the data is casted from one primitive type ( like int, float, double etc… ) to another primitive type, then. A casting process in which a foam pattern is replaced by molten in a flask filled with loose sand to form a casting. Thermal burns during plaster hardening. Shrinkage is the loss of inventory that can be attributed to factors such as employee theft, shoplifting, administrative error, vendor fraud, damage in transit or in store, and cashier errors that. Unable to cast COM object of type 'CrystalDecisions. Solid Edge is a. comWhoevercannot completely ensure the security of …This year at VidCon, we asked video creators how they find inspiration and unleash their creativity. can i reinstall ms outlook 2010 RE: Reinstalling Microsoft Office 2010 Office 2010 Starter First of all Microsoft Office 2010 Starter was a free version of Office preinstalled on Dell systems with Windows 7 OEM. Today I will point out some common casting defects, its causes and remedies of it. 5 percent carbon by weight whereas carbon steel contains less than 0. indications. When casting character data representing only date or only time components to the datetime or smalldatetime data types, the unspecified time component is set to 00:00:00. But when destination type is smaller than source type, then we need to explicitly cast it. Your app becomes the remote control to play, pause, seek, rewind, stop, and otherwise control the media. -Dimensional tolerances are not very good. Java Data Type Casting Type Conversion. Use the chart below or click on a particular grade of cast iron to learn whether it is a good fit for your application. Casting is often necessary when a function returns a data of type in different form then we need to perform an operation. They are reliable, time-tested, commercially available, need not be specially fabricated and afford great flexibility in meeting jobsite conditions. ) 2) Downloading a file from a FTP Server. indications. Types of Defects Based on Location: External Internal Based on Type: Geometric Integrity Based on Size/Severity: Small/Minor Large/Major Based on Process: Moulding-related Filling-related Solidification-related. If you have a variable of data type long and you want to assign it to an int type variable, type casting can be used for that purpose. CASTING OF CUBES: The cube mould plates should be removed, properly cleaned assembled and all the bolts should be fully tight. You can find more about it in the TypeScript Language Specification:. To typecast something, simply put the type of variable you want the actual variable to act as inside parentheses in front of the actual variable. Applications - Car parts - cylinder heads, blocks and gearbox cases. In this range of processes the melted material is required to disperse into Continuous Casting. Baitcasting rods help beginners to learn angles too. This method can be used to make car parts that must be exactly the same in each model and make of a particular vehicle, or ornate door handles sold at home improvement stores. Parts Made by Casting. To use a casting rod, you would need a casting reel. Our attention to detail using precision casting techniques produces the highest quality steel castings for various industries. Close Senior Discount. There are different types of melting furnaces used in casting, and each furnace uses various technology. 1935 Mack Type 75BX Fire Engine diecast model truck 1:24 scale die cast by Signature Yat Ming - 20098 Shopping may be the trend, and it's all about convenience and fun. Facing is a lathe operation in which the cutting tool removes metal from the end of the workpiece or a shoulder. Others are permanent and are reused again and again. of UI for ASP. Types of casts. indirect planting, and manual vs. You can follow the question or vote as helpful, but you cannot reply to this thread. to throw off or away. Sand casting is one of the most popular and simplest types of casting that has been used for centuries. Under normal conditions, a cast iron pipe can be expected to last 100 years. Therefore, the basic scope of the metallurgical processing of cast iron is to manipulate the type, amount, and morphology. In this process the solid billed was cast around a fireproof brick core. Instances of types that represent COM components. 0 of the double type, because as a result of converting the first operand has taken the double type. Jump to: navigation, search. public class Identifier; { private T _value; public Iden. IServiceProvider’. Both the processes involves pouring of molten metal into a mold/die which will take the shape of cavity mold or die on solidification. “Meg March is a. 1) Primitive Casting : When the data is casted from one primitive type ( like int, float, double etc… ) to another primitive type, then. Type casting in Swift is implemented with the is and as operators. The Schools of Magic¶. Different Types of Casting and the Casting Process. They are automatically performed when a value is copied to a compatible type. Hardness is a characteristic of a material, not a fundamental physical property. Casting and type conversions (C# Programming Guide) 07/20/2015; 5 minutes to read +8; In this article. Sand casting, or sand mold casting, is a popular method of producing non-ferrous alloy casts. A Sands Most sand casting operations use silica sand (SiO2). By continuing to browse this site, you agree to this use. There are two types of casting: casting with an implicit type declaration and casting with an explicit type declaration. Exception: Conversions, specified as methods or operators, are often required. 11 Hydroxyapatite 3. Several types of casts are available to help injuries heal. Die casting is the most typical type of casting for mass-produced metal items. Like the name implies, cast iron sinks are made by casting iron. Cast and Walking Boot Used to Treat Achilles Tendon Tear Is an operation needed to repair a torn Achilles tendon? Doctors still don't agree on the best way to treat these injuries. What is the difference between unicast, anycast, broadcast and multicast traffic? What situations are they generally used in and why (e. Check out Another Videos Related. A short arm cast, in contrast, ends just below the elbow. This is ok for inbuilt numeric types but in case of reference types, there is a possibility that the types are not at all compatible i. This topic is not specific to Java, as many other programming languages support casting of their variable types. The CASTINGaddition allows you to assign a data object to a field symbol where the type of the data object is incompatible with that of the field symbol. Two additional types of pipe are sometimes found in older homes and are infrequently installed, especially by do-it-yourselfers: steel and cast iron pipe. It is the first and most essential part of the casting process. Scholars, particularly wizards, apply these categories to all spells, believing that all magic functions in essentially the same way, whether it derives from rigorous study or is bestowed by a deity. Sand casting, the most widely used casting process, utilizes expendable sand molds to form complex metal parts that can be made of nearly any alloy. On the other hand "08" will not be cast, as it isn't a valid decimal integer. In this process, the alloy from which the blades will be formed is poured into a ceramic mold, heated in a furnace, and cooled. That's my favorite type of character so Nanachi absolutely fills. In programming, type casting is the process of "casting" a value of a certain data type, into a storage variable that was designed to store a different data type. Any change in the tone produced indicates the existence of a. The easiest way of getting the string that results from type-conversion is to concatenate a value to an empty string. Plaster cast. Before the division operation is performed, the c1 variable is explicitly cast to the double type. Support our mission by buying great stuff. In fact, the explicit typecasting is a unary operation. A short arm cast, in contrast, ends just below the elbow. type conversion in c,pdf, Types: Implicit and Explicit, Examples for typecasting and Difference between type casting and type conversion. In most cases, experienced anglers can use both heavier and lighter fly fishing lines than their rods state, although it can sometimes affect their casting. Assigning a value of one type to a variable of another type is known as Type Casting. A spell’s components are what you must do or possess to cast it. The problem occurs when we need to manipulate a generic class given a reference to its non-generic base class. Having the same keyword in different match types shouldn’t increase your costs or hurt performance in any way. The compiler is. Many industries prefer metal casting because of its ability to create complex shapes, both internal and external, and cast repeated copies of mass produced parts. The fiberglass cast looks similar to a plaster cast, but it is not as hard. Type casting is the prefered method of forced conversion Type Casting (or) Explicit Type conversion: Explicit type conversions can be forced in any expression , with a unary operator called a cast. NET AJAX Grid. Lost-wax process, method of metal casting in which a molten metal is poured into a mold that has been created by means of a wax model. Sand casting has been used for a long time and different foundries use different base sands for the process. Metal casting employs a variety of metals to create the molded end product and dates back thousands of years. Cast, in the context of C#, is a method by which a value is converted from one data type to another. In skin forming alloys when the filling event is chaotic, air bubbles can be entrapped in the casting. Unicast - This type of information transfer is useful when there is a participation of single sender and single recipient. This type of vibrator attaches to the casting table with screws and vibrates the entire concrete countertop. Now the integer constant 2 is cast to the value 2. castingquality. Type mold (opened so that the newly cast H can be removed. This is ok for inbuilt numeric types but in case of reference types, there is a possibility that the types are not at all compatible i. There are two types of conversion: implicit and explicit. New data type should be mentioned before the variable name or value in brackets which to be typecast. Generally the recovery time for a broken bone is 4 to 6 weeks, depending on the circumstances of the injury. Others are permanent and are reused again and again. [3] Sand casting requires a lead time of days, or even weeks sometimes, for production at high output rates (1-20 pieces/hr-mold) and is unsurpassed for large-part production. Casting here mean the conversion of that value to another version that could fit the variable of the different data type. misalign) or deform because of the stresses set up in them internally, due to differential solidification rates experience by different sections of large , long and wide flat castings. Allow liquid metal to solidify, after solidification the casting metal can be taken out by breaking the mold. ) Each participant saw all 4 types of visual indicators (text only, color only, icon only, color and icon), while viewing each site only once. In any case, that's a standard Java warning, indicating that you are casting a non-generic type (Object) to a generic type (List). Once this is determined, then the casting director gets to work. Before casting, the slump of the concrete is measured in accordance to BS 1881: Part 102 (1983). Typecast Objects with a dynamically loaded Class ?. 11 Wollastonite 2. 10 Aluminium copper alloy 2. Today I will point out some common casting defects, its causes and remedies of it. In fishing, casting is the act of throwing bait or a lure using a fishing rod, reel, and line. The maximum piece size, weight and location. If the last two examples above seem odd, see String conversion to numbers. 1mm can be achieved when using the process. Kevin James-type. Unable to cast object of type 'System. ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about the meaning, classification and impact of accounting errors. Pipes, lids (manhole lids). As the name Ductile Iron suggests this grade of Cast Iron has a degree of ductility. This type of vibrator attaches to the casting table with screws and vibrates the entire concrete countertop. Damage types. There are two types of casting, 1) Primitive Casting. Dynamic Casting. Unique among our capabilities is the ability to manufacture very large investment castings with net weights more than 850 lbs. A hollow core can be effected by the introduction of a heat-proof core that prevents the molten. Casting variables is complex. Qingdao Casting Quality Industrial Co. Typecasting is making a variable of one type, such as an int, act like another type, a char, for one single operation. A cast represents an explicit request by the programmer to do a type conversion. Home metal casting information for building a foundry and melting metal in your backyard. The Java type system is made up of two kinds of types: primitives and references. While there are many ways to categorize steel, we find it useful to break the types of steel down into four categories (C arbon, A lloy, S tainless and T ool Steel). Typecasting is the explicit conversion of data type because user explicitly defines the data type in which he wants to cast. "But you don't have the same expectations that a big holiday release has, which isn't the type of Star Wars that comes out of me. In programming, type casting is the process of "casting" a value of a certain data type, into a storage variable that was designed to store a different data type. Unable to cast object of type 'ASP. For Example, in C#, the numeric data types are compatible with each other but no automatic conversion is supported from numeric type to char or boolean. Metal + Metallurgy China 2019. Casting Defects - Sand Mold, Metal Casting. These include: • Crucible Furnaces • Dosing Furnaces • Immersion Furnaces • Induction Furnaces • Reverberatory Furnaces • Stack Furnaces Each of these furnaces has advantages and disadvan-tages, which will be presented in the next section. This type of casting manipulates the const attribute of the passed object, either to be set or removed. Dongrun Sand Casting offer three types of castings – Sand casting product, Gravity casting product, Die Casting product. Master Pattern: The object from which a die can be made; generally a metal model of the part to be cast with process shrinkage. This is ok for inbuilt numeric types but in case of reference types, there is a possibility that the types are not at all compatible i. Intel Atom® Processors. A long arm Cast. A soft cast is a type of cast made from semi-flexible fiberglass rather than from the traditional plaster material. In fact, the explicit typecasting is a unary operation. to build by throwing up earth. " "An unexpected null value has been encountered while querying the database system tables. Metal Casting is one of the oldest materials shaping methods known. The steel chamber (shot chamber) is too little to have any reaction with hot molten metal to be casted. Special Casting Processes Special Casting Processes: The sand moulds may be used for casting ferrous and non-ferrous metals, but these moulds can be used only once, because the mould is destroyed after the metal has solidified. The two-needle casting on techniques -- "knitting-on" and cable for example -- don't require a yarn tail at all. Type casting in C# is used to change from one data type to another data type. Good physiotherapy will help avoid these problems. Now the integer constant 2 is cast to the value 2. Jul 20, 2015 · Once Add or Remove Programs is open, locate your Office 2010 or Outlook 2010 standalone installation in the list of installed programs and select it. 10-windows lifecam dashboard access-webcam Oct 08, 2015 · The package provides the installation files for Microsoft LifeCam Cinema Driver version 4. of Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Prof. This is important information to know, because the type of porosity will dictate the vacuum impregnation process to use. slab” or simply “r. Casting is broadly defined as the process of forming a substance into a specific shape using a mold. In high rises buildings and skyscrapers, thinner, pre-cast concrete slabs are slung between the steel frames to form the floors and ceilings on each level. If dynamic_cast is used to convert to a reference type and the conversion is not possible, an exception of type bad_cast is thrown instead. Cast, in the context of C#, is a method by which a value is converted from one data type to another. The corrosion resistance of CF type high alloy cast steels is compa­ rable to wrough 30t 0 serie s material but the C gradeF s hav a e slightly different composition an contaid n ferrit fo improvere d weldability. Die casting is a popular manufacturing process for the casting of metal products. The line itself provides the casting weight, and the rod's size and flexibility are matched to the line's weight for best casting results. Most often this porosity appears to be a misrun or incomplete casting. Step 1: The pattern (with vent holes) is placed on a hollow carrier plate. Casting to some data types requires parameters. What are the different types of Casting? 1. Chrome also includes the ability to play certain types of audio files. The other type of mold is a closed mold, it contains a delivery system for the molten material to reach the mold cavity, where the part will harden within the mold. Pork Dude: Seeking forty- to fifty-year-old man for pork ad. 5 percent carbon by weight whereas carbon steel contains less than 0. Explicit type conversion can also be. Specializing in Investment Castings for Air-Melt Alloys. Centrifugal Casting. Type casting is a powerful programming concept, because it helps you to write flexible and reusable code. The Fourier Transform is best understood intuitively; after all, physicists have long declared that all matter is actually waves (de Broglie's postulate), or a waveform-type phenomenon. • There are certain parts (like turbine blades) made from metals and alloys that can only be processed this way. Testing Decimal Types Two new tests have been added as part of the TestCliDriver framework within Hive. Reference type casting is nothing. Also, char and boolean are not compatible. Six Types of Leaders, Part 1. We break down how to season cast iron pans, skillets, and cookware in a few easy steps. Type casting refers to changing an variable of one data type into another. Controllers. Basic and Common Symbols. This list is based on CarMax sales information collected between June 1, 2018 and November 30, 2018. indirect planting, and manual vs. In Unicast type of communication, there is only one sender, and one receiver. This means that you could play a music file in a browser tab and cast it to your TV, effectively taking advantage of your television's speaker system to play music from your computer. Cast iron is a material that still has significant usage in the water industry. slab” or simply “r. There are several types of molds that are used in the casting process. If you have a variable of data type long and you want to assign it to an int type variable, type casting can be used for that purpose. Scholars, particularly wizards, apply these categories to all spells, believing that all magic functions in essentially the same way, whether it derives from rigorous study or is bestowed by a deity. We can also provide tooling, CNC machining, polishing, plating, heat treatment, pressure test, vacuum Impregnation, assembly and testing for your orders. The permanent mold casting is similar to the sand casting process In distinction from sand molds which are broken after each casting a permanent mold may be used for pouring of at least one thousand and up to 100,000 casting cycles. BUT WE ARE GOING TO. Patternmaking is the art of designing patterns. The Designer (Cider) evaluated the constructor code in the UserControl to the point that it threw casting errors on the Parent property. There are two types of conversion. These allowances are discussed below: Mechanical Engineering : Different Types of Pattern Allowances in Casting. Static Casting A data type can be changed by using a cast ( ' ) operation. The words "Business Insider". This week I'm going to bring you an array of coaching definitions that I discovered along the way. Type casting. Lasers are used for many purposes. Good physiotherapy will help avoid these problems. Sand casting is one of the most popular and simplest types of casting that has been used for centuries. There is various reason or sources which is responsible for the defects in the cast metal. - where investment casting is “precision casting”! From low alloy investment castings to stainless steel or nickel alloy investment castings, we keep you ahead of the competition. ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about the meaning, classification and impact of accounting errors. The value can be of any type. masterpage_master' to type 'ASP. Baitcasting rods help beginners to learn angles too. Facing is a lathe operation in which the cutting tool removes metal from the end of the workpiece or a shoulder. Ability to Use Multiple Plastic Types Simultaneously. thumb spica cast immobilization. shed, molt. When solidified, the desired metal object is taken out from the mold either by breaking the mold or taking the mold apart. Laser cutting is a highly accurate process, thanks to this high level of control that you are offered. The difference in the dimensions of the casting and the pattern is due to the various allowances considered while designing a pattern for a casting. Investment Casting: Method of casting using an expendable pattern of wax, plastic, or other material. Most grey cast iron pipes that are in service were manufactured by either pit casting or spin casting. This question, “Forging vs. Lines of source code per programmer-month (LOC/pm) is a widely used soft-. 11 Hydroxyapatite 3. However, it is often necessary for piles to be installed without causing any significant ground heave or vibrations because of their proximity to existing structures. So let’s begin to summarize the difference between these three: Note: There is no separate classification for Many-to-Many applications, for example, video conferencing or online gaming, where. Fracture management, regardless of type is considered a major "surgery" with a 90 day global period. type of mold need not be rotated as fast as in the case of a true centrifugal casting for only enough force is needed to cause the metal to first flow to the outer rim. Performing arithmetical operations with varying types of data type without an explicit cast means that the compiler has to perform an implicit cast to ensure that the values it uses in the calculation are of the same type. DBNull' to type 'System. Under certain circumstances Type conversion can be carried out automatically, in other cases it must be "forced" manually (explicitly). Casting Temperature Guide Important: Metal pouring temperature will vary slightly depending upon particular alloy used. Step 1: The pattern (with vent holes) is placed on a hollow carrier plate. Split pattern:. Different Types Of Cast Iron Based on the alloying elements added, Grey cast iron. We break down how to season cast iron pans, skillets, and cookware in a few easy steps. Some of the most popular materials used for mold making include: plaster, latex rubber, paste maker, moulage, gelatin, white rubber and polymer or chemically activated multiple part mold rubbers. Type casting. Parts of small appliances, hand tools, lawnmowers and other machinery are produced from thousands of different unique aluminum casting shapes. The sand molding process of casting metals was also invented in China in 645 BCE. They are most commonly used in sand casting, but are also used in die casting and injection moulding. To access this archives please visit the University Web Archives Site. X-rays may be used to help determine when it is time for the cast to be removed. will be honored by the American Foundry Society for their contributions to the industry during the 2019 Foundry Leadership Summit. " It means that the product must be differentiated from other, similar, products. Today I received my check for participating ($300 - woo hoo! enough to keep me in glucose tabs for a while) and the final lab results. There are three main types of laser cutting: C02 laser cutting. Here are a few examples where I did not specify a data type for some variables, so PowerShell determined the variable's data type based on the value:. A short arm cast, in contrast, ends just below the elbow. “Casting the best person for the job is one thing,” Calhoun adds, “but when you really say ‘We need these people behind the table,’ then you find the best of those people, you find the. At a high level, differentiate the following types of control: • Manual versus automatic feedback control • Closed-loop versus open-loop control Note: To answer the activity questions the Hand Tool (H) should be activated. Subscribe To Why Does Morgan Freeman Always Get Cast As A World Leader? Nick Nolte Has Thoughts Updates They had nothing but compliments to spew at the actor over his various leader-type roles. Green Sand: Natural sands combined with water and organic additives (such as clay) to proper consistency for creating molds. If the last two examples above seem odd, see String conversion to numbers. He has been the CFO or controller of both small and medium sized companies and has run small businesses of his own. Here are a few examples where I did not specify a data type for some variables, so PowerShell determined the variable's data type based on the value:. While making structural drawings of the reinforced concrete slab, the slabs are abbreviated to “r. thumb spica cast immobilization. After solidification takes the casting out by breaking the mold called a casting process. Introducing various metal casting defects with many pictures by Dandong Foundry in China. The oldest known metal casting is that of a copper frog, believed to have been produced in 3200 BCE in Mesopotamia. Explicit Type Conversion is also called Type Casting, the data types of object are converted using predefined function by. Casting is the process where metal is heated until molten. If the cast cannot be made, the cast fails and the expression evaluates to null. com Casting Material Grey Cast Iron Composition and Property Grey Cast Iron (Gray iron) is so called because of the colour of the fracture face. public class Identifier; { private T _value; public Iden. The cast operator translates one variable type into another and forces calculations to be performed in the cast type. Typing your keyword including Cast Iron 60" x 30" Clawfoot Soaking Bathtub Cast Iron 60" x 30" Clawfoot Soaking Bathtub Reviews : If you're looking for Cast Iron 60" x 30" Clawfoot Soaking Bathtub. cast part •In addition, a casting may have internal surfaces, determined by a core, placed inside the mold cavity to define the interior geometry of part •In sand casting, cores are generally made of sand. an object made by pouring hot liquid into a container and leaving it to become solid 3. 616 Chapter 26 Software cost estimation functionality produced in some given time. Let us take a look at how we can use type casting and inspect the generated JavaScript. The very common bi-valve molding process uses two molds, one for each half of the object. Such pipes are normally made from 5 cm to 120 cm in diameter. Therefore, the basic scope of the metallurgical processing of cast iron is to manipulate the type, amount, and morphology. On mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum plate, the laser cutting process is highly accurate, yields excellent cut quality, has a very small kerf width and small heat affect zone, and makes it possible to cut very intricate shapes and small holes. A movie crew is a group of people hired by a film company for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture. In cold-chamber die casting machines, the molten-metal reservoir is separate from casting machines, unlike the hot-chamber die casting machines. Cast iron pipe Cast iron (grey cast iron) is a historical type of pipe manufactured in the 19th and 20th centuries that is used as pressure pipe for transmission of water and sewage. But you should not be penalized for their lack of understanding or failure to follow directions. Gates and runners are the most important components in several types of pattern. Metals are usually cast during manufacture and can be used in that condition but tend to be brittle, have a coarse microstructure and contain segregation of different constituents. A chill is an object used to promote solidification in a specific portion of a metal casting mold. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: